A lightning arrester protects the electrical network and the structures from lightning. When lightning strikes, it creates massive destruction and damages the equipment. A lightning arrester or a surge diverter protects the equipment at the substation. The lightning arrester bifurcates the abnormal high voltage to the ground without affecting the continuous power supply, connected between the supply line and earth i.e., in parallel with the equipment to be protected at the substation. An ESE or early streamer emission lightning arrester consists of an optimized pulse rod (OPR) air terminal that works effectively in lightning protection for open-air areas such as mine areas, administrative or public buildings, industrial sites, playgrounds and monuments. According to NFC 17-102, UNE 21186 standard, the early streamer emission (ESE) lightning protection systems are the most effective protection against lightning.
The ESE lightning arrester is also known as the Active lightning arrester system that provides an enhanced radius of protection and down conductors needed for your building or solar project while providing complete protection. ESE air terminals are externally mounted, proactive, structural lightning protection devices designed to activate in the moments directly preceding a close direct strike. The active lightning arrester system depends on the time difference between the emission time of a conventional lightning arrester and an early streamer emission lightning arrester. The emission from the ESE is created by storing energy from the electromagnetic field or static charges during lightning events. Under normal conditions, the air terminal operates in the stand by mode.
There will be a spike in the electric field whenever there is a storm on the site, which causes the periodic release of the stored energy, generating an upward leader from the tip of the ESE lightning arrester. The upward leader moves towards the downward leader from the clouds building a path for discharging the lightning. The lightning bolt passes safely through the conductive body of the ESE lightning arrester to the down conductor and finally reaches safely into the ground. This working principle enhances the radius of protection provided by the Early steamer emission lightning arrester better than any other conventional lightning rod.
There are different advantages of installing an ESE air terminal which include: 1) The direct path to the ground of a conventional lightning protection system 2) The state-of-the-art ESE technology employed in the ESE internal design. These advantages ensure that the ESE provides a secure zone of protection. Certain features are important while installing the ESE terminal during the lightning protection system design. These features are usually high structural points, such as equipment rooms on flat roofs and chimneys.
Steps of Installing ESE Air Terminal
There are several steps to be followed during the installation of a typical early streamer emission air terminal that consists of:
1st phase of conductive plus
-Earthing installation, soil resistance measurement
-Placing the chemical fixings for the anchorage
-Mounting the lightning air terminal, adapting piece, mast and conductor
2nd phase of conductive plus
-Placing the anchorage and fixing the air terminal, piece and mast assembly
-Fixing the down conductor clips
-Lightning event counter and guard tube installations
-Arranging the earthing pits and bonding bars
-Earthing resistance final measurement
The components for a lightning protection system using ESE air terminals can be divided into external and internal lightning protection systems. The external lightning protection system includes one (or more) air terminals, two (or more) down conductors and an earth termination system. The internal lightning protection system consists of surge protection installation and other measures minimizing the destructive effects of lightning.
Guide for Design and Installation of ESE
Guide for Design and Installation of ESEThe guide for the design and installation of early streamer emission air terminals, discussed in detail concerning the numbers marked in the image as follows:
1. The radius of protection inherited by the ESE lightning conductor is dependent on the height (with relation to the area that is to be protected).
2. The air terminal is installed, above 2 meters higher than any other element within its protection radius.
3. The air terminals are earthed using two down conductors located outside the structure.
4. Every down conductor should be installed such that the path is straight and shortest to the earth without any sharp bends and avoid crossing or running conductors close to electrical cables.
5. The number of down conductor fixings is determined by placing clips per meter as a reference.
6. Down conductors should have a cross-section of at least 50 mm2 as the lightning has to flow through them.
7. The down conductors are protected by installing guard tubes up to 2m above ground level.
8. To carry out verification and maintenance, the installation of a lightning event counter is essential.
9. The down conductor is at a distance of at least 5meters from the external gas pipes.
10. It is mandatory to have an earth termination system for each down conductor.
11. The resistance of the earth termination system must be lower than 10 ohms when separated from other conductive elements.
12. The inductance of the earth termination system must be as low as possible. The vertical electrodes are arranged in such a manner to form a triangle with a minimum total length of 6 meters.
13. The soil conductivity improver is used in highly resistive grounds.
14. All earthing termination systems are bonded together.
15. A spark gap connects the lightning earth termination system to the earth system and the lightning air terminal.
16. All elements of lightning rod earth termination are at a distance of 5 meters away from any buried metal or electric pipes.
Therefore the operation of an ESE air terminal is dependent on the electric characteristics of the lightning formation. The objective of an external lightning protection system is to control the lightning strike point and provide the lightning current with a path to earth, preventing any damage to the structure. The ESE air terminals safeguard open areas, any objects placed on the roof of the building and the surroundings, thereby providing the largest protection volume. ESE Air Terminals DAT controller and remote controller can be installed in any structure to provide a desired and controlled point of impact for the lightning strike.
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